Best writers. Best papers. Let professionals take care of your academic papers

Order a similar paper and get 15% discount on your first order with us
Use the following coupon "FIRST15"

How To Reference Your School Biology Paper

How To Reference Your School Biology Paper

How To Reference Your School Biology Paper

It is important to give appropriate credit when writing your Biology research paper. Whether you paraphrase, summarize or use direct quotation on an idea that is not yours, make sure to tell the reader where you cited it from.

The Council of Science Editors (CSE) style is designed for the general sciences including biology. You need to cite your paper in two places within your paper: in-text and bibliography.

  • In-text citation outlines how to cite a paraphrased summary of an author’s words or work within your paper.
  • Bibliography outlines how to create an alphabetical list of references at the end of your paper that lists anything you cite.

In-Text Citation

There are three types of in-text citation options for the CSE:

  • Name-Year,
  • Citation-Sequence,
  • Citation-Name

In-text references consist of paraphrased descriptions of research done by others. Place the parentheses around the author’s surname and year of publication. People rarely use quotes in scientific publications.

Citing A Work By A Single Author

The NIH has called for a change in smallpox vaccination policy (Fauci 2002) that…

Citing A Work By Two Authors

When a work has 2 authors, give both names and separate them by “and” plus the year in between parentheses. If the authors have the same surname, include their first initials.

In a recent study (Williams and Jones 2013) found…

In a recent study (Williams T and Williams B 2013) found…

Citing A Work By Three Or More Authors

When a work has more than two authors, give only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” and the publication year.

… but later studies (Ito et al. 2014) established that…

Corporations Or Organizations As Authors

If the author is an organization, committee, or corporation, create a shortened form  for the in-text reference to avoid interrupting the text with a long string of words. Use the initial letters of each part of the name or a readily recognizable abbreviation.  Include your abbreviation in square brackets for your reference list.

The landmark report on legalized abortion ([IOM] 1975) was…

No Author

If the author cannot be determined, do not use “anonymous.”  Instead, substitute it with an organization name if one is available.  In addition, if there is no organization, use the first word or few words of the title, followed by ellipsis. Only use enough words of the title to distinguish it from other titles.

Drug dosage recommendations for elderly patients (Handbook… 2000) depart from…

No Date

Occasionally it is not possible to determine any date associated with a publication.  If you found the document online, use the date you viewed it instead.  Alternatively, for print publications, place the words “date unknown” within square brackets.

Only one study (Hamilton 2014) relating the adverse effects of hormone…

Only one study (Hamilton [date unknown]) relating the adverse effects of…

The Reference List

The reference list is located at the end of a document under the heading “Reference,” “Cited References,” Literature Cited,” or “Bibliography.” It alphabetically lists and matches the sources cited within the text, including tables and figures.

"Order a similar paper and get 15% discount on your first order with us
Use the following coupon

Order Now