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Every healthcare sector work with huge volumes of data and information. Therefore, statistical tools like R, SPSS, SAS, etc., are now in demand and being used extensively.

4 major psychological models

There are a number of psychological models that the authors have worked on and proposed over the years. But the most widely used ones are the below 4 psychological models –

1. Self-efficacy theory

Self-efficacy is the ability of a person to take a decision, motivate others towards the decision and take the right course of action according to the demands of the situation. Psychology studying self-efficacy that the people who display high efficacy will be able to take ruthless decisions when the time comes to achieve their objectives. At the same time, those who display low self-efficacy are more likely to fail due to weak efforts.

The two variables here are – how much self-efficacy does the person has and how well the results are delivered. The direction of the relationship is directly proportional, i.e. if the self-efficacy is higher, the results will be more goal-oriented.

2. Coping theory

The individuals in the world today are always surrounded by some problems. These problems can either be personal or interpersonal. The individuals solve these problems using their wit and knowledge so that they are able to minimise the stress in their lives. Psychology studies that because every person solves their problems in a different way and with a different result.

A nursing professional has to teach the patient to cope with the change in their health conditions due to the illness or the health problem. And that is why good coping behaviour is necessary for any psychological study.

The variables are coping and stress. Their relationship is inversely proportional, as coping improves, the stress decreases.

3. Learned helplessness theory

There are various situations in our lives where we are involved in a situation that was unseen and inevitable and had a deep effect on mental health. The patients, thus, start feeling helplessness and eventually leads to depression.

In this, there are three dimensions and the variables differ as to their names. The first one being internal v/s external, the person believes that the reason why response and outcome are not as expected because of the personal factors (internal) or due to the universal factors (external).

The second one is the global v/s specific. Global helplessness says that it can happen to anyone and in any situation, no matter how big or small. But specific helplessness is when the person feels learned helplessness only in some specific situations and in specific traits.

The last one is stable v/s unstable where stable one is due to recurrent factors while unstable is due to intermittent factors. The stable ones are fixed while unstable ones are variable.

4. Social support

Humans are social animals and to survive, we need social relationships that are healthy. Therefore, social support is a theory that psychologists use as a model. In this, there are three various dimensions –

  1. Social integration or isolation

This means what type of social relationship is the person involved. If the relationship is forced or a voluntary one.

  1. The social network of the person

The social network is the structure of social relationships that the person has. This includes family, friends, close friends, colleagues, partners, etc.

  1. Social support

Here, you discuss the function that social relationship holds. For example, a relationship with the family and partner can be of emotional while that at work may be of appraisal nature.

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